Volume 13 (2021)


This issue marks the thirteenth anniversary of Voces Novae: Chapman University Historical Review , the award-winning, student-run e-journal published by the Alpha Mu Gamma Chapter of Phi Alpha Theta. The COVID-19 pandemic inflicted a difficult situation on the global community the last year and few months. This is especially true for our undergraduate authors who endured a fully virtual research process and draining remote learning experience. With the guidance of thesis advisors Dr. Jeffrey Koerber and Dr. Robert Slayton, the History Department's Class of 2021 persevered in completing stellar work, with several papers being featured in this year's publication. The Class of 2021 owes gratitude to these two advisers for their unwavering academic and emotional support these last three semesters.

We thank our Voces Novae faculty advisor, Dr. Charissa Threat, and long-time advisor Dr. Shira Klein. In addition, we owe gratitude to the entire faculty of the History Department. Their mentorship and continuous encouragement empowers students to pursue their passions, search for truth, and produce quality historical literature. Dr. Jennifer D. Keene, Dr. Robert Slayton, Dr. Alexander Bay, Dr. William F. Cumiford, Dr. Jeffrey Koerber, Dr. Marilyn J. Harran, Professor Lily Hodges, Professor Mike Fraga, Dr. Vanessa Gunther, Dr. Kyle Longley, Dr. Adwoa Opong, Dr. Thomas Reins, Dr. Liam O’Mara, Dr. Jana Remy, Dr. David Fouser, Dr. Patrick Cecil, Dr. David Crowe, Dr. Mateo Jarquin, Dr. Erin Mosely, and Professor Brenda Farrington have inspired and supported us on our growth as promising historians, writers, scholars, and global citizens.

We also thank Kristin Laughtin-Dunker for her incredible help and patience in orienting us through the fundamentals of this digital platform. Her support ensured this e-journal's continued success.

We credit our dedicated team of student editors who were willing to devote their time to this journal, and especially recognize our Junior and Sophomore Editors.

The authors featured in this issue of Voces Novae: Chapman University Historical Review navigated through a virtual research process, utilized a variety of primary source documents, and contributed to the vast collection of outstanding literature by Chapman undergraduate students.

George Tajonera & Delaynie Voortman

Senior Editors



Subversive Patriots
Austin Bryan