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Glucocorticoid (GC) anti-inflammatory effects generally require a prolonged onset of action and involve genomic processes. Because of the rapidity of some of the GC effects, however, the concept that non-genomic actions may contribute to GC mechanisms of action has arisen. While the mechanisms have not been completely elucidated, the non-genomic effects may play a role in the management of inflammatory diseases. For instance, we recently reported that GCs ‘rapidly’ enhanced the effects of bronchodilators, agents used in the treatment of allergic asthma. In this review article, we discuss (i) the non-genomic effects of GCs on pathways relevant to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and (ii) the putative role of the membrane GC receptor. Since GC side effects are often considered to be generated through its genomic actions, understanding GC non-genomic effects will help design GCs with a better therapeutic index.


NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, volume 40, issue 1, in 2019. DOI: 10.1016/

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