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Bovine liver supplements are sought after by consumers due to their nutrient-dense profile and high protein content. However, there is a lack of information regarding bovine liver supplement labeling practices. The objective of this study was to assess labeling practices and compliance with U.S. regulatory standards among commercially sold bovine liver supplements. The product labels for 49 bovine liver supplements were examined for required information, including a statement of identity; net quantity of contents; “Supplement Facts” label; ingredient statement; and name and place of business of manufacturer, packer, or distributor with domestic address or telephone number. Any claims made on the supplement labels were also reviewed for compliance. Overall, 59% of the products had at least one instance of noncompliance with U.S. labeling regulations. The main categories of noncompliance were missing a domestic mailing address or phone number (39% of products), noncompliant nutrient content claim (31% of products), and missing/noncompliant disclaimer for a nutritional support statement (6% of products). The lack of a mailing address or phone number is problematic because it prevents consumers from being able to report serious adverse events to the manufacturer. The majority (85%) of the nutrient content observed on product labels was found to be noncompliant. Noncompliant nutrient content claims are a major concern for consumers who rely on these claims to assess the nutritional benefits of a product. Overall, the results of this study revealed a lack of labeling compliance in bovine liver supplements, indicating a need for increased awareness and monitoring.


This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published in Journal of Dietary Supplements in 2020, available online at It may differ slightly from the final version of record.

Peer Reviewed



Taylor & Francis



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