Editorial Board 2022
Senior Editors: Philip Goodrich, Nat Pendergraft
Junior Editors: Tyler Drake, Haleluya Wondwosen
Sophomore Editors: Jordan Robbins, Kelly Taylor
Student Editors (General Editors): Eden Gal, Sam Andrus, Aaron Berman, Sophia Axiotis, Kaitlyn Pasillas, Sebastian Myhr, Kellan Jenner, Skyelar Andrews, Julia Martinez, Mitchell Tanaka, Taylor Banks
Faculty Advisor: Dr. Shira Klein
Voces Novae: Chapman University Historical Review is a peer-reviewed journal founded in the Spring of 2009 by the Alpha Mu Gamma Chapter of Phi Alpha Theta at Chapman University. The mission of Voces Novae is to provide undergraduate students a forum to contribute original research to the body of historical knowledge. We seek to bring students and teachers of history together in an intellectual dialogue with the goal of promoting and assisting historical research and analysis. Through the introduction of new and diverse voices in historical research, Voces Novae supports the mission of Chapman University to foster inquiring, ethical and productive lives as global citizens.

Current Volume: Volume 14 (2022)


This issue marks the fourteenth anniversary of Voces Novae: Chapman University Historical Review, the award-winning, student-run e-journal published by the Alpha Mu Gamma Chapter of Phi Alpha Theta. Despite the tumultuous world students find themselves in today, these papers are some of the finest undergraduate works Chapman has to offer. Being partially online and partially in person made research and publication difficult, but the class of 2022 rose to the occasion.

The publication of this extraordinary issue would not have been possible without the support provided by Chapman University's outstanding faculty and staff. We would especially like to thank Kristin Laughtin-Dunker for her incredible support, which has been invaluable in making this e-journal a continued success.

We would like to thank both our faculty advisor, Dr. Charissa Threat, and long-time advisor Dr. Shira Klein who were both instrumental in this publication's success. In addition, we also owe gratitude to the entire faculty of the History Department, who have helped the class of 2022 to create the best academic works possible while still staying true to themselves and their passions. Dr. Jennifer D. Keene, Dr. Robert Slayton, Dr. Alexander Bay, Dr. Kyle Longley, Dr. Lily Hodges, Dr. William F. Cumiford, Dr. Jeffrey Koerber, Dr. Marilyn J. Harran, Professor Michael Fraga, Dr. Mateo Jarquin, Dr. Thomas Reins, Dr. Liam O’Mara, Dr. Jana Remy, Dr. Adwoa Opong, Dr. David Fouser, and Dr. Patrick Cecil have all inspired us to develop our skills as historians, writers, scholars, and global citizens. Congratulations to Dr. Robert Slayton on his 2022 retirement, after over 20 years at Chapman’s history department. Thank you for all the hard work and passion you have put into this university.

We would also like to thank our dedicated team of student editors who were willing to devote their time to this journal, and especially recognize our Junior and Sophomore editors, without whom this issue could not exist.

The authors selected for this issue have worked with primary source documents, ultimately creating a series of papers that reflect not only their own extreme diligence, but also the impressive execution of primary research for which Chapman students are renowned. Thank you to all those who have contributed to this publication of Voces Novae: Chapman University Historical Review, bringing our world closer together as our view of it grows immeasurably wider.

Nat Pendergraft & Philip Goodrich