Editorial Board 2020
Senior Editors: Leana Sottile, Joseph Dickinson
Junior Editors: George Tajonera, Delaynie Voortman
Sophomore Editors: Natalie Pendergraft, Philip Goodrich
Faculty Advisors: Dr. Shira Klein, Dr. Charissa Threat
Managing Editor: Bo Kent
Voces Novae: Chapman University Historical Review is a peer-reviewed journal founded in the Spring of 2009 by the Alpha Mu Gamma Chapter of Phi Alpha Theta at Chapman University. The mission of Voces Novae is to provide undergraduate students a forum to contribute original research to the body of historical knowledge. We seek to bring students and teachers of history together in an intellectual dialogue with the goal of promoting and assisting historical research and analysis. Through the introduction of new and diverse voices in historical research, Voces Novae supports the mission of Chapman University to foster inquiring, ethical and productive lives as global citizens.

Current Volume: Volume 12 (2020)


This issue marks the twelfth anniversary of Voces Novae: Chapman University Historical Review, the award-winning, student-run e-journal published by the Alpha Mu Gamma Chapter of Phi Alpha Theta. It has been a difficult year for everyone due to the COVID-19 pandemic, however, our undergraduate authors have pulled through nonetheless and helped put together an excellent volume. The publication of this extraordinary issue would not have been possible without the support provided by Chapman University's outstanding faculty and staff. We would especially like to thank Kristin Laughtin-Dunker for her incredible help and patience in orienting us through the fundamentals of this digital platform. Her support has been invaluable in making this e-journal a continued success.

Furthermore, we must thank our faculty advisor, Dr. Charissa Threat, and long-time advisor Dr. Shira Klein. In addition, we also owe gratitude to the entire faculty of the History Department, who have served as mentors and have always encouraged students to pursue their passions and produce quality historical literature to the best of their ability. Dr. Jennifer D. Keene, Dr. Gregory A. Daddis, Dr. Robert Slayton, Dr. Alexander Bay, Dr. Erin Mosely, Dr. William F. Cumiford, Dr. Jeffrey Koerber, Professor Brenda Farrington, Dr. Marilyn J. Harran, Professor Mike Fraga, Dr. Vanessa Gunther, Dr. Thomas Reins, Dr. Liam O’Mara, Dr. Jana Remy, Dr. David Fouser, Dr. Patrick Cecil, and Dr. Mateo Jarquin have inspired us to develop our skills as budding historians, writers, scholars, and global citizens.

We would also like to thank our dedicated team of student editors who were willing to devote their time to this journal, and especially recognize our Junior, Sophomore, and Managing editors, without whom this issue could not exist.

The authors selected for this issue have worked with primary source documents, ultimately creating a series of papers that reflect not only their own extreme diligence but also the impressive execution of primary research for which Chapman students are renowned. We are thankful to those who have contributed to this publication of Voces Novae: Chapman University Historical Review, thus adding to the ever-expanding body of historical knowledge.

Leana Sottile & Joseph Dickinson
Senior Editors