Claire C. Treat, Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research
Anna-Maria Virkkala, Woodwell Climate Research Center
Eleanor Burke, Met Office Hadley Centre
Lori Bruhwiler, NOAA Global Monitoring Laboratory
Abhishek Chatterjee, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Joshua B. Fisher, Chapman UniversityFollow
Josh Hashemi, Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research
Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, University of Oslo
Brendan M. Rogers, Woodwell Climate Research Center
Sebastian Westermann, University of Oslo
Jennifer D. Watts, Woodwell Climate Research Center
Elena Blanc-Betes, University of Illinois at Urbana‐Champaign
Matthias Fuchs, University of Colorado Boulder
Stefan Kruse, Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research
Avni Malhotra, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Kimberley Miner, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Jens Strauss, Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research
Amanda Armstrong, University of Maryland Baltimore County
Howard E. Epstein, University of Virginia
Bradley Gay, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Mathias Goeckede, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry
Aram Kalhori, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
Dan Kou, University of Eastern Finland
Charles E. Miller, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Susan M. Natali, Woodwell Climate Research Center
Youmi Oh, NOAA Global Monitoring Laboratory
Sarah Shakil, University of Alberta
Oliver Sonnentag, Université de Montréal
Ruth K. Varner, University of New Hampshire
Scott Zolkos, Woodwell Climate Research Center
Edward A.G. Schuur, Northern Arizona University
Gustaf Hugelius, Stockholm University

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Significant progress in permafrost carbon science made over the past decades include the identification of vast permafrost carbon stocks, the development of new pan-Arctic permafrost maps, an increase in terrestrial measurement sites for CO2 and methane fluxes, and important factors affecting carbon cycling, including vegetation changes, periods of soil freezing and thawing, wildfire, and other disturbance events. Process-based modeling studies now include key elements of permafrost carbon cycling and advances in statistical modeling and inverse modeling enhance understanding of permafrost region C budgets. By combining existing data syntheses and model outputs, the permafrost region is likely a wetland methane source and small terrestrial ecosystem CO2 sink with lower net CO2 uptake toward higher latitudes, excluding wildfire emissions. For 2002–2014, the strongest CO2 sink was located in western Canada (median: −52 g C m−2 y−1) and smallest sinks in Alaska, Canadian tundra, and Siberian tundra (medians: −5 to −9 g C m−2 y−1). Eurasian regions had the largest median wetland methane fluxes (16–18 g CH4 m−2 y−1). Quantifying the regional scale carbon balance remains challenging because of high spatial and temporal variability and relatively low density of observations. More accurate permafrost region carbon fluxes require: (a) the development of better maps characterizing wetlands and dynamics of vegetation and disturbances, including abrupt permafrost thaw; (b) the establishment of new year-round CO2 and methane flux sites in underrepresented areas; and (c) improved models that better represent important permafrost carbon cycle dynamics, including non-growing season emissions and disturbance effects.


This article was originally published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, volume 129, issue 3, in 2024.

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