Regulation of tRNA-Dependent Translational Quality Control

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Translation is the most error‐prone process in protein synthesis; however, it is important that accuracy is maintained because erroneous translation has been shown to affect all domains of life. Translational quality control is maintained by both proteins and RNA through intricate processes. The aminoacyl‐tRNA synthetases help maintain high levels of translational accuracy through the esterification of tRNA and proofreading mechanisms. tRNA is often recognized by an aminoacyl‐tRNA synthetase in a sequence and structurally dependent manner, sometimes involving modified nucleotides. Additionally, some proofreading mechanisms of aminoacyl‐tRNA synthetases require tRNA elements for hydrolysis of a noncognate aminoacyl‐tRNA. Finally, tRNA is also important for proper decoding of the mRNA message by codon and anticodon pairing. Here, recent developments regarding the importance of tRNA in maintenance of translational accuracy are reviewed.


This article was originally published in IUBMB Life, volume 71, in 2019.


International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology