Document Type


Publication Date



We introduce concurrent Kleene algebra with tests (CKAT) as a combination of Kleene algebra with tests (KAT) of Kozen and Smith with concurrent Kleene algebras (CKA), introduced by Hoare, Möller, Struth and Wehrman. CKAT provides a relatively simple algebraic model for reasoning about semantics of concurrent programs. We generalize guarded strings to guarded series-parallel strings , or gsp-strings, to give a concrete language model for CKAT. Combining nondeterministic guarded automata of Kozen with branching automata of Lodaya and Weil one obtains a model for processing gsp-strings in parallel. To ensure that the model satisfies the weak exchange law (x‖y)(z‖w)≤(xz)‖(yw) of CKA, we make use of the subsumption order of Gischer on the gsp-strings. We also define deterministic branching automata and investigate their relation to (nondeterministic) branching automata.

To express basic concurrent algorithms, we define concurrent deterministic flowchart schemas and relate them to branching automata and to concurrent Kleene algebras with tests.


NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Logical and Algebraic Methods in Programming. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Logical and Algebraic Methods in Programming in 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.jlamp.2015.12.005

The Creative Commons license below applies only to this version of the article.

Peer Reviewed




Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Included in

Algebra Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.