Structure Determination, Functional Characterization, and Biosynthetic Implications of Nybomycin Metabolites from a Mining Reclamation Site-Associated Streptomyces

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We report the isolation and characterization of three new nybomycins (nybomycins B–D, 13) and six known compounds (nybomycin, 4; deoxynyboquinone, 5; α-rubromycin, 6; β-rubromycin, 7; γ-rubromycin, 8; and [2α(1E,3E),4β]-2-(1,3-pentadienyl)-4-piperidinol, 9) from the Rock Creek (McCreary County, KY) underground coal mine acid reclamation site isolate Streptomyces sp. AD-3-6. Nybomycin D (3) and deoxynyboquinone (5) displayed moderate (3) to potent (5) cancer cell line cytotoxicity and displayed weak to moderate anti-Gram-(+) bacterial activity, whereas rubromycins 68 displayed little to no cancer cell line cytotoxicity but moderate to potent anti-Gram-(+) bacterial and antifungal activity. Assessment of the impact of 3 or 5 cancer cell line treatment on 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, a predictive marker of ROS-mediated control of cap-dependent translation, also revealed deoxynyboquinone (5)-mediated downstream inhibition of 4E-BP1p. Evaluation of 19 in a recently established axolotl embryo tail regeneration assay also highlighted the prototypical telomerase inhibitor γ-rubromycin (8) as a new inhibitor of tail regeneration. Cumulatively, this work highlights an alternative nybomycin production strain, a small set of new nybomycin metabolites, and previously unknown functions of rubromycins (antifungal activity and inhibition of tail regeneration) and also provides a basis for revision of the previously proposed nybomycin biosynthetic pathway.


This article was originally published in Journal of Natural Products, volume 82, issue 12, in 2019.


American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy