Frenolicins C-G, Pyranonaphthoquinones from Streptomyces sp. RM-4-15

Document Type


Publication Date



Appalachian active coal fire sites were selected for the isolation of bacterial strains belonging to the class actinobacteria. A comparison of high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) and ultraviolet (UV) absorption profiles from isolate extracts to natural product databases suggested Streptomyces sp. RM-4-15 to produce unique metabolites. Four new pyranonaphthoquinones, frenolicins C–F (1–4), along with three known analogues, frenolicin (6), frenolicin B (7), and UCF76-A (8), were isolated from the fermentation of this strain. An additional new analogue frenolicin G (5) along with two known compounds, deoxyfrenolicin (9) and UCF 13 (10), were isolated from the fermentation supplied with 18 mg/L of scandium chloride - the first example, to the best of our knowledge, wherein scandium chloride supplementation led to the confirmed production of new bacterial secondary metabolites. Structures 1–5 were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical modification. While frenolicins are best known for their anticoccidial activity, the current study revealed compounds 6–9 to exhibit moderate cytotoxicity against the human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) and thereby extends the anticancer SAR for this privileged scaffold.


This article was originally published in Journal of Natural Products, volume 76, issue 8, in 2013.


American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy