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Levuglandin (LG) E2, a cytotoxic seco prostanoic acid co-generated with prostaglandins by nonenzymatic rearrangements of the cyclooxygenase-derived endoperoxide, prostaglandin H2, avidly binds to proteins. That LGE2-protein adducts can also be generated nonenzymatically is demonstrated by their production during free radical-induced oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL). Like oxidized LDL, LGE2-LDL, but not native LDL, undergoes receptor-mediated uptake and impaired processing by macrophage cells. Since radical-induced lipid oxidation produces isomers of prostaglandins, isoprostanes (isoPs), via endoperoxide intermediates, we postulated previously that a similar family of LG isomers, isoLGs, is cogenerated with isoPs. Now iso[4]LGE2-protein epitopes produced by radical-induced oxidation of arachidonic acid in the presence of protein were detected with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Iso[4]LGE2-protein epitopes are also generated during free radical-induced oxidation of LDL. All of the LGE2isomers generated upon oxidation of LDL are efficiently sequestered by covalent adduction with LDL-based amino groups. The potent electrophilic reactivity of iso-LGs can be anticipated to have biological consequences beyond their obvious potential as markers for specific arachidonate-derived protein modifications that may be of value for the quantitative assessment of oxidative injury.


This research was originally published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.

Salomon RG, Sha W, Brame C, et al. Protein adducts of iso[4]levuglandin E2, a product of the isoprostane pathway, in oxidized low density lipoprotein. J. Biol. Chem. 1999;274(29):20271-20280. doi: 10.1074/jbc.274.29.20271

© the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology


American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology



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