Document Type

Senior Thesis

Publication Date

Spring 2024


Under dictatorships in Spain and Argentina, artists used their mediums to criticize the actions of the Catholic church and oppressive conditions enforced by the government, using allegories, metaphors, and symbolism in their art. While many artists tried to create works that fell within authoritarian guidelines, others intentionally created cinema and literature criticizing the Argentine and Spanish governments, values, and practices, knowing the works would be banned. This investigation uses examples of cinema and literature created and published deliberately to be prohibited or censored under the regimen of Francisco Franco from 1939-1975 in Spain or the last civil-military dictatorship from 1976-1983 in Argentina. McCombs and Lewis’ Framing Theory (Agenda-setting Theory), Hall’s Reception Theory, and Bunn’s New Censorship Theory are useful tools for understanding message creation, transmission, and reception. These theories aid in interpreting how decisions regarding the creation and censorship of art are made. The author, Adrian Self, is a Global Communication and Spanish major and Public Relations minor at Chapman University and will offer her insights into why this topic is relevant today.


Presented at Chapman University's Student Scholar Symposium, Spring 2024.


The author