We show that generosity is affected when we vary the level of role uncertainty, i.e., the probability that the dictator’s decision will be implemented. We also show that framing matters for generosity in that subjects are less generous when they are told that their choices will be implemented with a certain probability, compared with a setting in which they are told that their choices will not be implemented with certain probability.
Mesa-Vázquez, E., Rodriguez-Lara, I., & Urbano, A. (2021). Standard vs random dictator games: On the effects of role uncertainty and framing on generosity. ESI Working Paper 21-17. https://digitalcommons.chapman.edu/esi_working_papers/354/