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The acronym R.I.O.T., record review, interview, observation, and test, is a well-known tool for conceptualizing a comprehensive assessment. With COVID-19 and the need to provide school psychological services virtually, it is important to reconsider R.I.O.T. in light of the limitations of virtual assessment. We describe the limitations of virtual assessment and argue that in spite of these barriers, the first three elements of R.I.O.T., record review, interviews, and observations, when used systematically, can provide useful comprehensive assessment data. Specific recommendations are provided for implementing assessment virtually.


This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Contemporary School Psychology in 2020 following peer review. The final publication may differ and is available at Springer via

A free-to-read copy of the final published article is available here.

This scholarship is part of the Chapman University COVID-19 Archives.

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