Document Type


Publication Date



Little research currently examines language instruction educational programs (LIEPs) in states with a more recent growth of the Latino English learner population. To meet this need, the authors examined the content each of the state LIEPs, focusing chiefly on the extent to which the types of language support, as well as the stipulations associated with them, are made explicit. Using US Census data from 1970 and 2009, the authors assessed LIEPs in the context of Latino population patterns and examined the relationship between the degree to which state LIEPs emphasize bilingual education and fourth-grade Latino English learners’ achievement patterns in reading, mathematics, and science achievement on the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for all 50 US states and the District of Columbia. Latino English learners in states with a higher proportion of Latinos tend to have higher achievement outcomes when policies emphasize bilingual education, but these states also have a longer history of Latino presence. Implications for high-growth states are discussed.


This article was originally published in American Journal of Education, volume 121, issue 3, in 2015.

Peer Reviewed



The University of Chicago

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License