Dynamics of Amphan Cyclone and Associated Changes in Ocean, Land Meteorological and Atmospheric Parameters

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The low-pressure system developed in the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea during March- October, often forms tropical cyclones, depending upon the intensity widespread destruction occurs in the areas where landfall takes place along the Indian coastal region. On 20 May, 2020, tropical cyclone Amphan hit the Indian coast at Bakkhali, West Bengal, in the afternoon (1330 IST). On 19 May, 2020, the intensity strengthened into a super cyclonic storm, with a strong wind speed up to 220 km/h. This cyclone affected a large population of India and Bangladesh. More than twenty-two thousand houses were damaged and millions of people were shifted to a safe place and due to the spread of COVID-19, the rescue missions were quite challenging. The cyclone affected most of the eastern states of India, heavy rainfall occurred causing floods along the track of cyclones. Using multi-satellite, ground and Argo floats data, we have analyzed meteorological and atmospheric parameters during May 2020. Our detailed analysis shows pronounced changes in atmospheric (CO mole fraction, total ozone column) and ocean parameters (chlorophyll concentration, dissolved oxygen, salinity, sea surface and sub-surface temperature) before and after the cyclone. Changes in ocean parameters such as caused by the cyclone Amphan along its track and the atmospheric and meteorological parameters change as the cyclone moves over the land.


This article was originally published in MAUSAM, volume 72, issue 1, in 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2010.03.040


Editor “MAUSAM”, Director General, India Meteorological Department, Lodi Road, New Delhi