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Editing of tRNAs is widespread in nature and either changes the decoding properties or restores the folding of a tRNA. Unlike the phylogenetically disperse adenosine (A) to inosine (I) editing, cytosine (C) to uridine (U) editing has only been previously described in organellar tRNAs. We have shown that cytoplasmic tRNAThr(AGU) undergoes two distinct editing events in the anticodon loop: C to U and A to I. In vivo, every inosine-containing tRNAThr is also C to U edited at position 32. In vitro, C to U editing stimulates conversion of A to I at the wobble base. Although the in vivo and in vitro requirements differ, in both cases, the C to U change plays a key role in A to I editing. Due to an unusual abundance of A34-containing tRNAs, our results also suggest that the unedited and edited tRNAs are functional, each dedicated to decoding a specific threonine codon. C to U editing of cytoplasmic tRNA expands the editing repertoire in eukaryotic cells, and when coupled to A to I changes, leads to an interrelation between editing sites.


This article was originally published in Journal of Biological Chemistry, volume 281, in 2006.


American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology



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