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Prokaryotic aminoacylated‐transfer RNAs often need to be efficiently segregated between translation and other cellular biosynthetic pathways. Many clinically relevant bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa direct some aminoacylated‐tRNA species into peptidoglycan biosynthesis and/or membrane phospholipid modification. Subsequent indirect peptidoglycan cross‐linkage or change in membrane permeability is often a prerequisite for high‐level antibiotic resistance. In Streptomycetes, aminoacylated‐tRNA species are used for antibiotic synthesis as well as antibiotic resistance. The direction of coding aminoacylated‐tRNA molecules away from translation and into antibiotic resistance and synthesis pathways are discussed in this review.


This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in FEBS Letters, volume 586, in 2012 following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version is available online at


Federation of European Biochemical Societies



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