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The trade-off between robustness and tunability is a central challenge in the pursuit of quantum simulation and fault-tolerant quantum computation. In particular, quantum architectures are often designed to achieve high coherence at the expense of tunability. Many current qubit designs have fixed energy levels and consequently limited types of controllable interactions. Here by adiabatically transforming fixed-frequency superconducting circuits into modifiable Floquet qubits, we demonstrate an XXZ Heisenberg interaction with fully adjustable anisotropy. This interaction model can act as the primitive for an expressive set of quantum operations, but is also the basis for quantum simulations of spin systems. To illustrate the robustness and versatility of our Floquet protocol, we tailor the Heisenberg Hamiltonian and implement two-qubit iSWAP, CZ and SWAP gates with good estimated fidelities. In addition, we implement a Heisenberg interaction between higher energy levels and employ it to construct a three-qubit CCZ gate, also with a competitive fidelity. Our protocol applies to multiple fixed-frequency high-coherence platforms, providing a collection of interactions for high-performance quantum information processing. It also establishes the potential of the Floquet framework as a tool for exploring quantum electrodynamics and optimal control.


This article was originally published in Nature Physics, volume 20, in 2024.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



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