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Bob has a black box that emits a single pure state qudit which is, from his perspective, uniformly distributed. Alice wishes to give Bob evidence that she has knowledge about the emitted state while giving him little or no information about it. We show that zero-knowledge evidencing of such knowledge is impossible in quantum relativistic protocols, extending a previous result of Horodecki, Horodecki, and Horodecki. We also show that no such protocol can be both sound and complete. We present a new quantum relativistic protocol which we conjecture to be close to optimal in security against Alice and which reveals little knowledge to Bob, for large dimension d. We analyze its security against general attacks by Bob and restricted attacks by Alice.


This article was originally published in Physical Review Letters, volume 120, in 2018.

Peer Reviewed



American Physical Society



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