We discuss how, in appropriately designed configurations, solenoids carrying a semifluxon can be used as topological energy barriers for charged quantum systems. We interpret this phenomenon as a consequence of the fact that such solenoids induce nodal lines in the wave function describing the charge, which on itself is a consequence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Moreover, we present a thought experiment with a cavity where two solenoids are sufficient to create bound states.
Paiva, I. L.; Aharonov, Y.; Tollaksen, J.; Waegell, M. Topological Bound States for Quantum Charges. Phys. Rev. A 2019, 100 (4), 040101. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.100.040101
American Physical Society