Document Type


Publication Date



Entangled photon pairs—discrete light quanta that exhibit non-classical correlations—play a crucial role in quantum information science (for example, in demonstrations of quantum non-locality1,2,3,4,5,6,7, quantum teleportation8,9 and quantum cryptography10,11,12,31). At the macroscopic optical-field level non-classical correlations can also be important, as in the case of squeezed light13, entangled light beams14,15 and teleportation of continuous quantum variables16. Here we use stimulated parametric down-conversion to study entangled states of light that bridge the gap between discrete and macroscopic optical quantum correlations. We demonstrate experimentally the onset of laser-like action for entangled photons, through the creation and amplification of the spin-1/2 and spin-1 singlet states consisting of two and four photons, respectively. This entanglement structure holds great promise in quantum information science where there is a strong demand for entangled states of increasing complexity.


This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Nature, volume 412, issue 6850, in 2001 following peer review. The final publication may differ and is available at Springer via

A free-to-read copy of the final published article is available here.

Peer Reviewed




Included in

Optics Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.