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We show how one can demonstrate continuous-variable Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) steering without needing to characterize entire measurement probability distributions. To do this, we develop a modified Fano inequality useful for discrete measurements of continuous variables and use it to bound the conditional uncertainties in continuous-variable entropic EPR-steering inequalities. With these bounds, we show how one can hedge against experimental limitations including a finite detector size, dead space between pixels, and any such factors that impose an incomplete sampling of the true measurement probability distribution. Furthermore, we use experimental data from the position and momentum statistics of entangled photon pairs in parametric downconversion to show that this method is sufficiently sensitive for practical use.


This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Journal of the Optical Society of America B, volume 32, issue 4, in 2015 following peer review. This article may not exactly replicate the final published version. The definitive publisher-authenticated version is available online at

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