The 28 September 2018 magnitude Mw7.8 Palu, Indonesia earthquake (0.178° S, 119.840° E, depth 13 km) occurred at 10:02 UTC. The major earthquake triggered catastrophic liquefaction, landslides, and a near-field tsunami. The ionospheric total electron content (TEC) derived from records of 5 ground-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers is employed to detect tsunami traveling ionospheric disturbances (TTIDs). In total, 15 TTIDs have been detected. The ray-tracing and beamforming techniques are then used to find the TTID source location. The bootstrap method is applied in order to further explore the possible location of the tsunami source based on results of the two techniques, which show the beamforming technique has a slightly better performance on finding possible locations of the tsunami source. Meanwhile, the circle method is employed to examine tsunami signatures of the sea-surface height and video records, and find possible tsunami origin locations. The coincidence of the TTID source location and the tsunami location shows that the ionospheric TEC recorded by local ground-based GNSS receivers can be used to confirm the tsunami occurrence, find the tsunami location, and support the tsunami early warning.
Liu, J., Lin, C., Chen, Y. et al. The source detection of 28 September 2018 Sulawesi tsunami by using ionospheric GNSS total electron content disturbance. Geosci. Lett. 7, 11 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40562-020-00160-w
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