Multiple parameters (brightness temperature, soil moisture, surface latent heat flux, surface air temperature and carbon monoxide) before and after the 2015 Nepal M7.8 Gorkha main earthquake and M7.3 Dolakha aftershock were analysed using satellite observation data. The thermal anomalies from optical and microwave data appear about two months prior to the 2015 Gorkha earthquake. Some of the parameters show anomalous changes at different altitudes about 20 days prior to the main earthquake event and 10 days prior to the strong aftershock. Our results show that pre-earthquake anomalous signals propagate from the in situ to the top of atmosphere, and the anomalies in the atmosphere often observed prior to an impending earthquake. The changes on the land surface and corresponding changes in meteorological and atmospheric parameters show existence of strong coupling during the seismogenic period, although the transfer mechanism of seismic/electromagnetic is still has to be investigated and understood.
Feng Jing, Ramesh P. Singh & Xuhui Shen (2019) Land – Atmosphere – Meteorological coupling associated with the 2015 Gorkha (M 7.8) and Dolakha (M 7.3) Nepal earthquakes, Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 10:1, 1267-1284, DOI: 10.1080/19475705.2019.1573629
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