Atomistic Simulations and Network-Based Modeling of the Hsp90-Cdc37 Chaperone Binding with Cdk4 Client Protein: A Mechanism of Chaperoning Kinase Clients by Exploiting Weak Spots of Intrinsically Dynamic Kinase Domains
A fundamental role of the Hsp90 and Cdc37 chaperones in mediating conformational development and activation of diverse protein kinase clients is essential in signal transduction. There has been increasing evidence that the Hsp90-Cdc37 system executes its chaperoning duties by recognizing conformational instability of kinase clients and modulating their folding landscapes. The recent cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Hsp90-Cdc37- Cdk4 kinase complex has provided a framework for dissecting regulatory principles underlying differentiation and recruitment of protein kinase clients to the chaperone machinery. In this work, we have combined atomistic simulations with protein stability and network-based rigidity decomposition analyses to characterize dynamic factors underlying allosteric mechanism of the chaperone-kinase cycle and identify regulatory hotspots that control client recognition. Through comprehensive characterization of conformational dynamics and systematic identification of stabilization centers in the unbound and client- bound Hsp90 forms, we have simulated key stages of the allosteric mechanism, in which Hsp90 binding can induce instability and partial unfolding of Cdk4 client. Conformational landscapes of the Hsp90 and Cdk4 structures suggested that client binding can trigger coordinated dynamic changes and induce global rigidification of the Hsp90 inter-domain regions that is coupled with a concomitant increase in conformational flexibility of the kinase client. This process is allosteric in nature and can involve reciprocal dynamic exchanges that exert global effect on stability of the Hsp90 dimer, while promoting client instability. The network-based rigidity analysis and emulation of thermal unfolding of the Cdk4-cyclin D complex and Hsp90- Cdc37-Cdk4 complex revealed weak spots of kinase instability that are present in the native Cdk4 structure and are targeted by the chaperone during client recruitment. Our findings suggested that this mechanism may be exploited by the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone to recruit and protect intrinsically dynamic kinase clients from degradation. The results of this investigation are discussed and interpreted in the context of diverse experimental data, offering new insights into mechanisms of chaperone regulation and binding.
Czemeres J, Buse K, Verkhivker GM (2017) Atomistic simulations and network-based modeling of the Hsp90-Cdc37 chaperone binding with Cdk4 client protein: A mechanism of chaperoning kinase clients by exploiting weak spots of intrinsically dynamic kinase domains. PLoS ONE 12(12): e0190267. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190267
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