The present report concerns the following projects 'Multifrequency observations of the BL Lacertae object MK 421"; "EUVE and multifrequency observations of the quasars 3C 273 and 3C 279"; "EUVE observations of the symbiotic star RAquarii"; and "Morphology of the local HI void and ionization of He in the local ISM". The common theme of the above projects is UV observations and analysis of a wide range of astrophysical classes or objects, from the diffuse interstellar medium, to symbiotic stars (R Aqr), to active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Understanding the local (primarily neutral hydrogen or HI) interstellar medium is of great importance to detecting nearby EUV sources. Specifically, the ionization of helium is strongly influencing the extinction in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and the optical depth can vary almost by an order of magnitude depending on the degree of ionization of various species including neutral helium Vel ) and singly ionized helium (Hell). The local interstellar medium (ISM) contains a giant void. Understanding the local ISM and the extent of the HI void engulfing the Sun is crucial to our understanding of the EUV emission from nearby strongly EUV-emitting stars like R Aqr, as well as subtracting local absorption effects from absorption effects in distant sources themselves such as quasars, BL Lacertae objects and AGNs in general. A compilation of known properties of the local ISM with appropriate references has been performed. R Aqr is a symbiotic stellar system comprised of a mass-losing approx.1 - 2 solar mass Mira- like long period variable with a 387 day period and a approx. solar mass,) hot companion/accretion disk that is believed to give rise to the symmetrical jet seen at UV, optical radio wavelengths. Recent observations of R Aqr have been conducted at continuum wavelengths with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 7 mm that have resolved the stellar components in RAqr and a geometrical distance of approx. 200pc has been obtained, confirming that R Aqr is the nearest symbiotic star system to the Sun. The status of the local ISM is, therefore, of great importance in attempting to understand the UV properties of the hot companion in R Aqr and its prominent jet. Here a multifrequency approach is required from both ground observations (e.g. with the VLA) as well as from space-borne observations (with the International Ultraviolet Explorer-IUE; and the Hubble Space Telescope-HST). The R Aqr jet has been observed with the VLA B-configuration at two epochs separated by approx. 13.2 yr. Comparison of the resulting 6 cm continuum images show that the radio jet has undergone a lateral counterclockwise rotation of approx. 6 deg - 12 deg on the plane of the sky. Comparison of the most recent radio image with a nearly contemporaneous HSTIFOC ultraviolet image at approx 2330 A suggests that the UV emission lies along the leading edge of the rotating radio jet.
Kafatos, M., (1997) Multifrequency Studies. Final report submitted to Center for AeroSpace Information, NASA.