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"Mass casualty incidents (MCIs) encompass any scenario that can dramatically impact emergency medicine or healthcare systems by causing a large number of casualties or other stressors to the system, including personnel, medications, and equipment burden.1 This can include acts of terrorism (eg, explosions, chemical exposures, cyberterrorism), mass-transit incidents, natural disasters (eg, earthquakes, floods), and fires. While health systems, as well as governmental organizations, often proactively develop plans to respond to certain threats, unanticipated barriers to their deployment and confusion surrounding who is ultimately responsible for activating, allocating, and distributing resources may lead to delays that have the potential to adversely impact patient care. Appropriate planning on behalf of local healthcare systems and governments is essential to ensure that patients’ needs are met during these overwhelming events."


This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, volume 80, issue 12, in 2023 following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version is available online at


Oxford University Press

Available for download on Saturday, April 13, 2024