Document Type


Publication Date



The study aims to assess office-based visit trends for lupus patients and evaluate their medication burden, chronic conditions, and comorbidities. This cross-sectional study used data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS), a survey sample weighted to represent national estimates of outpatient visits. Adult patients diagnosed with lupus were included. Medications and comorbidities that were frequently recorded were identified and categorized. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to characterize visits by sex, age, race/ethnicity, insurance type, region, and reason for visit. Comorbidities were identified using diagnosis codes documented at each encounter. There were 27,029,228 visits for lupus patients from 2006 to 2016, and 87% them were on or were prescribed medications. Most visits were for female (88%), white (79%), non-Hispanic (88%) patients with private insurance (53%). The majority of patients were seen for a chronic routine problem (75%), and 29% had lupus as the primary diagnosis. Frequent medications prescribed were hydroxychloroquine (30%), prednisone (23%), multivitamins (14%), and furosemide (9%). Common comorbidities observed included arthritis (88%), hypertension (25%), and depression (13%). Prescription patterns are reflective of comorbidities associated with lupus. By assessing medications most frequently prescribed and comorbid conditions among lupus patients, we showcase the complexity of disease management and the need for strategies to improve care.


This article was originally published in Healthcare, volume 10, in 2022.


The authors

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.