Document Type

Article

Publication Date

4-21-2022

Abstract

Human malignant melanoma exhibits imbalances in redox status, leading to activation of many redox-sensitive signaling pathways. APE/Ref-1 is a multifunctional protein that serves as a redox chaperone that regulates many nuclear transcription factors and is an important mechanism in cancer cell survival of oxidative stress. Previous studies showed that APE/Ref-1 is a potential druggable target for melanoma therapy. In this study, we synthesized a novel APE/Ref-1 inhibitor, bis-cinnamoyl-1,12-dodecamethylenediamine (2). In a xenograft mouse model, compound 2 treatment (5 mg/kg) significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to the control group, with no significant systemic toxicity observed. We further synthesized compound 2 analogs to determine the structure-activity relationship based on their anti-melanoma activities. Among those, 4-hydroxyphenyl derivative (11) exhibited potent anti-melanoma activities and improved water solubility compared to its parental compound 2. The IC50 of compound 11 was found to be less than 0.1 μM. Compared to other known APE/Ref-1 inhibitors, compound 11 exhibited increased potency in inhibiting melanoma proliferation. As determined by luciferase reporter analyses, compound 2 was shown to effectively inhibit H2O2-activated AP-1 transcription activities. Targeting APE/Ref-1-mediated signaling using pharmaceutical inhibitors is a novel and effective strategy for melanoma treatment with potentially high impact.

Comments

This article was originally published in Molecules, volume 27, in 2022. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092672

molecules-27-02672-s001.zip (5524 kB)
Supplementary material

Copyright

The authors

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

COinS
 
 

To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.