Document Type


Publication Date




To evaluate a three-compartmental semi-physiological model for analysis of uptake clearance and efflux from brain tissue of the hydrophilic markers sucrose and mannitol, compared to non-compartmental techniques presuming unidirectional uptake.


Stable isotope-labeled [13C]sucrose and [13C]mannitol (10 mg/kg each) were injected as IV bolus into the tail vein of awake young adult mice. Blood and brain samples were taken after different time intervals up to 8 h. Plasma and brain concentrations were quantified by UPLC-MS/MS. Brain uptake clearance (Kin) was analyzed using either the single-time point analysis, the multiple time point graphical method, or by fitting the parameters of a three-compartmental model that allows for symmetrical exchange across the blood-brain barrier and an additional brain efflux clearance.


The three-compartment model was able to describe the experimental data well, yielding estimates for Kin of sucrose and mannitol of 0.068 ± 0.005 and 0.146 ± 0.020 μl.min−1.g−1, respectively, which were significantly different (p < 0.01). The separate brain efflux clearance had values of 0.693 ± 0.106 (sucrose) and 0.881 ± 0.20 (mannitol) μl.min−1.g−1, which were not statistically different. Kin values obtained by single time point and multiple time point analyses were dependent on the terminal sampling time and showed declining values for later time points.


Using the three-compartment model allows determination of Kin for small molecule hydrophilic markers with low blood-brain barrier permeability. It also provides, for the first time, an estimate of brain efflux after systemic administration of a marker, which likely represents bulk flow clearance from brain tissue.


This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Pharmaceutical Research, volume 39, in 2022 following peer review. The final publication may differ and is available at Springer via

A free-to-read copy of the final published article is available here.





To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.