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Background: Despite potential benefits, the practice of incorporating pharmacogenomics (PGx) results in clinical decisions has yet to diffusewidely. In this study,we conducted a review of recent discussions on data standards and interoperability with a focus on sharing PGx test results among health systems. Materials & methods:We conducted a literature search for PGx clinical decision support systems between 1 January 2012 and 31 January 2020. Thirty-two out of 727 articles were included for the final review. Results: Nine of the 32 articles mentioned data standards and only four of the 32 articles provided solutions for the lack of interoperability. Discussions: Although PGx interoperability is essential for widespread implementation, a lack of focus on standardized data creates a formidable challenge for health information exchange. Conclusion: Standardization of PGx data is essential to improve health information exchange and the sharing of PGx results between disparate systems. However, PGx data standards and interoperability are often not addressed in the system-level implementation.


This article was originally published in Pharmacogenomics, volume 21, issue 16, in 2020.

This scholarship is part of the Chapman University COVID-19 Archives.


Don Roosan

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.



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