A cyclic peptide containing one cysteine and five alternating tryptophan and arginine amino acids [(WR)5C] was synthesized using Fmoc/tBu solid-phase methodology. The ability of the synthesized cyclic peptide to produce gadolinium nanoparticles through an in situ one-pot mixing of an aqueous solution of GdCl3 with [(WR)5C] peptide solution was evaluated. Transmission electron microscopy showed the formed peptide-Gd nanoparticles in star-shape morphology with a size of ~250 nm. Flow cytometry investigation showed that the cellular uptake of a cell-impermeable fluorescence-labeled phosphopeptide (F′-GpYEEI, where F′ = fluorescein) was approximately six times higher in the presence of [(WR)5C]-Gd nanoparticles than those of F′-GpYEEI alone in human leukemia adenocarcinoma (CCRF-CEM) cells after 2 h incubation. The antiproliferative activities of cisplatin and carboplatin (5 µM) were increased in the presence of [(WR)5C]-GdNPs (50 μM) by 41% and 18%, respectively, after 72-h incubation in CCRF-CEM cells. The intracellular release of epirubicin, an anticancer drug, from the complex showed that 15% and 60% of the drug was released intracellularly within 12 and 48 h, respectively. This report provides insight about using a non-toxic MRI agent, gadolinium nanoparticles, for the delivery of various types of molecular cargos.
Shirazi AN, Park SE, Rad S, Baloyan L, Mandal D, Sajid MI, Hall R, Lohan S, Zoghebi K, Parang K, Tiwari RK. Cyclic peptide-gadolinium nanoparticles for enhanced intracellular delivery. Pharmaceutics. 2020;12(9):792. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12090792
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