Document Type


Publication Date



The implementation of pharmacogenomics (PGx) has come a long way since the dawn of utilizing pharmacogenomic data in clinical patient care. However, the potential benefits of sharing PGx results have yet to be explored. In this paper, we explore the willingness of patients to share PGx results, as well as the inclusion of family medication history in identifying potential family members for pharmacogenomics cascade testing (PhaCT). The genetic similarities in families allow for identifying potential gene variants prior to official preemptive testing. Once a candidate patient is determined, PhaCT can be initiated. PhaCT recognizes that further cascade testing throughout a family can serve to improve precision medicine. In order to make PhaCT feasible, we propose a novel shareable HIPAA-compliant informatics platform that will enable patients to manage not only their own test results and medications but also those of their family members. The informatics platform will be an external genomics system with capabilities to integrate with patients’ electronic health records. Patients will be given the tools to provide information to and work with clinicians in identifying family members for PhaCT through this platform. Offering patients the tools to share PGx results with their family members for preemptive testing could be the key to empowering patients. Clinicians can utilize PhaCT to potentially improve medication adherence, which may consequently help to distribute the burden of health management between patients, family members, providers, and payers.


This article was originally published in Pharmacogenomics Journal in 2020.

A supplemental presentation of PhaCT model is available here.


The authors

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.