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We examined the effects of tigecycline on three types of exoproteins, α-type phenol-soluble modulins (PSMα1 to PSMα4), α-hemolysin, and protein A, in 13 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates compared to those of clindamycin and linezolid. Paradoxical increases in PSMαs occurred in 77% of the isolates with tigecycline at 1/4 and 1/8 MICs and clindamycin at 1/8 MIC compared to only 23% of the isolates with linezolid at 1/8 MIC. Induction was specific to PSMα1 to PSMα4, as protein A and α-hemolysin production was decreased under the same conditions by all of the antibiotics used.


This article was originally published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, volume 57, issue 9, in 2013. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.00470-13


American Society for Microbiology



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