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Early events in the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated lymphoproliferations in the context of HIV disease remain poorly understood. Recent research indicates that latent HIV infection causes persistent immune dysfunction in B cell follicles. Simultaneously, lack of T cell immune surveillance in the lymph nodes dysregulates the biology of EBV. In sum, these defects bias B lymphocyte maturation away from traditional T cell-dependent germinal center-mediated pathways and towards extrafollicular pathways. Recent advances in B lymphocyte immunology suggest that extrafollicular maturation pathways for antibody secreting cells are more flexible and robust than previously believed. These responses are now understood to be both durable and antigen-specific, and even canonically germinal center-restricted events such as class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation have now been demonstrated in an extrafollicular context. As a lymphotrophic pathogen which causes disease primarily in the context of HIV and EBV co-infection, future studies examining the interactions of KSHV biology with extrafollicular B cell maturation pathways will be critical to uncovering key aspects of KSHV-mediated immune pathology.


NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Current Opinion in Virology. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version will be subsequently published in Current Opinion in Virology in 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.coviro.2017.07.016

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