Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are highly increased in incidence in individuals infected with HIV, and this continues to be the case in spite of highly effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). New evidence has demonstrated that while successful virtual recovery of CD4 counts and elimination of HIV from peripheral blood can be achieved with cART, viral replication can still occur in lymphoid tissues. In addition, recent studies have suggested that adipose tissue provides an additional reservoir for HIV-infected macrophages and T lymphocytes even in the context of successful cART therapy. In this review article, we discuss possible mechanisms leading to the development of lymphoma in the cART era.
Totonchy J, Cesarman E. Does persistent HIV replication explain continued lymphoma incidence in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy? Curr Opin Virol. 2016;20:71-77. doi: 10.1016/j.coviro.2016.09.001
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