Adenylyl Cyclase Isoform Specific Effects in Lipid Raft and Non-Lipid Raft Membrane Domains Regulate cAMP Compartmentation in Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells
The formation of distinct macromolecular signaling complexes allows different G-protein coupled receptors to produce diverse functional responses, even while sharing a common second messenger such as cAMP. In human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells, segregation of specific receptors into different membrane microdomains is thought to critically aid in generating compartmentalized cAMP responses. Whereas, E type prostaglandin receptors (EPRs) have been shown to be expressed in non-lipid raft domains of the plasma membrane, β-Adrenergic receptors (βARs) are predominantly expressed in caveolar lipid rafts. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that adenylyl cyclase type 2 (AC2) preferentially couples to EPRs in a non-lipid raft domain, while adenylyl cyclase type 6 (AC6) selectively couples to βARs in lipid rafts. To do this, we examined the effect of overexpressing AC2 and AC6 on cAMP responses detected using genetically-encoded FRET-based biosensors targeted to lipid raft and non-lipid raft domains of the plasma membrane, as well as the bulk cytosolic compartment in HASM cells. This approach has the advantage of measuring the kinetics of cAMP production in living cells without the use of PDE inhibitors. Overexpression of AC2 enhanced the cAMP response to EPR activation associated with non-lipid raft domains, without significantly affecting responses detected elsewhere. AC2 overexpression also had no effect on cAMP responses to βAR activation detected in any subcellular location. These data confirm the hypothesis that AC2 couples exclusively with EPRs in a non-lipid raft membrane compartment. Overexpression of AC6, on the other hand, actually decreased the response to βAR stimulation associated with lipid rafts, without significantly affecting responses elsewhere. AC6 overexpression also had no effect on the responses to EPR activation detected anywhere in the cell. The ability of AC6 overexpression to inhibit βAR production of cAMP in lipid raft domains was reversed by inhibition of PDE4 activity with rolipram. It was also reversed by overexpression of Ht31 peptide, which disrupts the interaction of protein kinase A with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). These results suggests that AC6 overexpression upregulates and/or recruits PKA and PDE4 activity, which then reduces βAR production of cAMP associated specifically with lipid raft domains.
SR Agarwal, K Miyashiro, HLatt, RS Ostrom and RD Harvey. Adenylyl Cyclase Isoform Specific Effects in Lipid Raft and Non-Lipid Raft Membrane Domains Regulate cAMP Compartmentation in Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells. FASEB J, 31(1): 990.2, 2017.
Federation of American Society of Experimental Biology (FASEB)