Introduction—The ongoing surge of resistance of bacterial pathogens to antibiotic therapies and the consistently aging median member of the human race signal an impending increase in the incidence of chronic bone infection. Nanotechnological platforms for local and sustained delivery of therapeutics hold the greatest potential for providing minimally invasive and maximally regenerative therapies for this rare but persistent condition.
Areas covered—Shortcomings of the clinically available treatment options, including poly(methyl methacrylate) beads and calcium sulfate cements, are discussed and their transcending using calcium-phosphate/polymeric nanoparticulate composites is foreseen. Bone is a composite wherein the weakness of each component alone is compensated for by the strength of its complement and an ideal bone substitute should be fundamentally the same.
Expert opinion—Discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo bioactivity assessments is highlighted, alongside the inherent imperfectness of the former. Challenges entailing the cross-disciplinary nature of engineering a new generation of drug delivery vehicles are delineated and it is concluded that the future for the nanoparticulate therapeutic carriers belongs to multifunctional, synergistic and theranostic composites capable of simultaneously targeting, monitoring and treating internal organismic disturbances in a smart, feedback fashion and in direct response to the demands of the local environment.
Uskoković V, Desai TA. Nanoparticulate drug delivery platforms for advancing bone infection therapies. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2014;11(12):1899-1912. doi:10.1517/17425247.2014.944860.
Taylor & Francis