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Cholecalciferol, vitamin D3, plays an important role in bone metabolism by regulating extracellular levels of calcium. Presented here is a study on the effects of the local delivery of cholecalciferol (D3) using nanoparticulate carriers composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). Multifunctional nanoparticulate HAp-based powders were prepared for the purpose of: (a) either fast or sustained, local delivery of cholecalciferol, and (b) the secondary, osteoconductive and defect-filling effect of the carrier itself. Two types of HAp-based powders with particles of narrowly dispersed sizes in the nano range were prepared and tested in this study: HAp nanoparticles as direct cholecalciferol delivery agents and HAp nanoparticles coated with cholecalciferol-loaded poly(D,L)-lactide-co-glycolide (HAp/D3/PLGA).

Satisfying biocompatibility of particulate systems, when incubated in contact with MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells in vitro, was observed for HAp/D3/PLGA and pure HAp. In contrast, an extensively fast release of cholecalciferol from the system comprising HAp nanoparticles coated with cholecalciferol (HAp/D3) triggered necrosis of the osteoblastic cells in vitro. Artificial defects induced in the osteoporotic bone of the rat mandible were successfully reconstructed following implantation of cholecalciferol-coated HAp nanoparticles as well as those comprising HAp nanoparticles coated with cholecalciferol-loaded PLGA (HAp/D3/PLGA). The greatest levels of enhanced angiogenesis, vascularization, osteogenesis and bone structure differentiation were achieved upon the implementation of HAp/D3/PLGA systems.


NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Materials Science & Engineering C, Materials for Biological Applications. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Materials Science & Engineering C, Materials for Biological Applications, volume 33, issue 2, in 2013. DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2012.11.026

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