Cholecalciferol, vitamin D3, plays an important role in bone metabolism by regulating extracellular levels of calcium. Presented here is a study on the effects of the local delivery of cholecalciferol (D3) using nanoparticulate carriers composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). Multifunctional nanoparticulate HAp-based powders were prepared for the purpose of: (a) either fast or sustained, local delivery of cholecalciferol, and (b) the secondary, osteoconductive and defect-filling effect of the carrier itself. Two types of HAp-based powders with particles of narrowly dispersed sizes in the nano range were prepared and tested in this study: HAp nanoparticles as direct cholecalciferol delivery agents and HAp nanoparticles coated with cholecalciferol-loaded poly(D,L)-lactide-co-glycolide (HAp/D3/PLGA).
Satisfying biocompatibility of particulate systems, when incubated in contact with MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells in vitro, was observed for HAp/D3/PLGA and pure HAp. In contrast, an extensively fast release of cholecalciferol from the system comprising HAp nanoparticles coated with cholecalciferol (HAp/D3) triggered necrosis of the osteoblastic cells in vitro. Artificial defects induced in the osteoporotic bone of the rat mandible were successfully reconstructed following implantation of cholecalciferol-coated HAp nanoparticles as well as those comprising HAp nanoparticles coated with cholecalciferol-loaded PLGA (HAp/D3/PLGA). The greatest levels of enhanced angiogenesis, vascularization, osteogenesis and bone structure differentiation were achieved upon the implementation of HAp/D3/PLGA systems.
Ignjatović N, Uskoković V, Ajduković Z, Uskoković D. Multifunctional hydroxyapatite and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for the local delivery of cholecalciferol. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2013;33(2):943-950. doi:10.1016/j.msec.2012.11.026.
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