Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Meeting Part D MTM Eligibility Criteria Among the Non-Medicare Population

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Objective To determine whether racial and ethnic minorities were less likely to meet the Medicare Part D eligibility criteria for medication therapy management (MTM) services compared with whites among the adult non-Medicare population, because some non-Medicare health plans have followed the Medicare example.

Design Cross-sectional observational study.

Setting United States, 2007–08.

Patients 16,691 white, 5,923 black, and 9,242 Hispanic adults (>17 years) among the non-Medicare population.

Intervention Analysis of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. MTM eligibility criteria used by Part D plans in 2008 and 2010–11 were examined. Main and sensitivity analyses were conducted to represent the entire range of the eligibility thresholds used by Part D plans. Analyses also were conducted among individuals with heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension.

Main outcome measures Proportions and odds of patients meeting Part D MTM eligibility criteria.

Results According to the main analysis examining 2008 eligibility criteria, whites had a higher proportion of eligible individuals than did blacks (3.73% vs. 2.57%) and Hispanics (1.53%, P < 0.05 for both comparisons). According to survey-weighted logistic regression adjusting for patient characteristics, blacks and Hispanics had odds ratios for MTM eligibility of 0.60 (95% CI 0.46–0.79) and 0.54 (0.40–0.72), respectively, compared with whites. Sensitivity analyses, analyses examining 2010–11 eligibility criteria, and analyses among individuals with heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension produced similar findings.

Conclusion Racial and ethnic minorities have lower odds for meeting Part D MTM eligibility criteria than whites among the adult non-Medicare population. MTM eligibility criteria need to be modified to address these disparities.


This article was originally published in Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, volume 52, issue 5, in 2012. DOI: 10.1331/JAPhA.2012.11146


American Pharmacists Association