Importance of the field: Cytarabine is a polar nucleoside drug used for the treatment of myeloid leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The drug has a short plasma half-life, low stability, and limited bioavailability. Overdosing of patients with continuous infusions may lead to side effects. Thus, various prodrug strategies and delivery systems have been extensively explored to enhance the half-life, stability, and delivery of cytarabine. Among the recent cytarabine prodrugs, amino acid conjugate ValCytarabine and fatty acid derivative CP-4055 (in phase 3 trials) have been investigated for the treatment of leukemia and solid tumors, respectively. Alternatively, delivery systems of cytarabine have emerged for the treatment of different cancers. The liposomal-cytarabine formulation (DepoCyt®) has been approved for the treatment of lymphomatous meningitis.
Areas covered in this review: Various prodrug strategies evaluated for cytarabine are discussed. Then, the review summarizes the drug delivery systems that have been used for more effective cancer therapy. What reader will gain: This review provides in-depth discussion of the prodrug strategy and delivery systems of cytarabine derivatives for the treatment of cancer. The design of cytarabine prodrugs and delivery systems provide insights for designing the next generation of more effective anticancer agents with enhanced delivery and stability.
Take home message: Strategies on designing cytarabine prodrug and delivery formulations showed great promise in developing effective anticancer agents with better therapeutic profile. Similar studies with other anticancer nucleosides can be an alternative approach to gaining access to more effective anticancer agents.
Chhikara, Bhupender S., and Keykavous Parang. "Development of cytarabine prodrugs and delivery systems for leukemia treatment." Expert opinion on drug delivery 7.12 (2010): 1399-1414. doi: 10.1517/17425247.2010.527330