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Few studies describe the frequency of antibiotic regimen modification behaviors in the acute care setting. We sought to ascertain patient and treatment characteristics, details of regimen modification, and clinical outcomes with antibiotic modifications. This retrospective study included patients admitted to Hoag Memorial Hospital from 1 January 2019–31 March 2021 with a complicated infection caused by a Gram-negative organism resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins or with the potential for resistance (AmpC producers). A total of 400 patients were included. The predominant sources were bloodstream (33%), urine (26%), and respiratory (24%), including patients with multiple sources. The most isolated organisms were Pseudomonas spp. and ESBL-producing organisms, 38% and 34%, respectively. A total of 72% of patients had antibiotic regimen modifications to their inpatient antibiotic regimens. In patients where modifications occurred, the number ranged from one to six modifications. The most common reasons for modifications included a lack of patient response (14%), additional history reviewed (9%), and decompensation (7%). No difference in clinical outcomes was observed based on antibiotic modifications. The numerous changes in therapy observed may reflect the limitations in identifying patients with resistant organisms early on in admission. This highlights the need for more novel antibiotics and the importance of identifying patients at risk for resistant organisms.


This article was originally published in Antibiotics, volume 13, issue 4, in 2024.


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