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The human gastrointestinal system is a complex ecosystem crucial for well-being. During sepsis-induced gut injury, the integrity of the intestinal barrier can be compromised. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria, disrupts the intestinal barrier, contributing to inflammation and various dysfunctions. The current study explores the protective effects of limonene, a natural compound with diverse biological properties, against LPS-induced jejunal injury in mice. Oral administration of limonene at dosages of 100 and 200 mg/kg was used in the LPS mouse model. The Murine Sepsis Score (MSS) was utilized to evaluate the severity of sepsis, while serum levels of urea and creatinine served as indicators of renal function. Our results indicated that LPS injection induced renal function deterioration, evidenced by elevated serum urea and creatinine levels compared to control mice. However, pretreatment with limonene at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg mitigated this decline in renal function, evidenced from the reduced levels of serum urea and creatinine. Limonene demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2), suppressing the TLR4/NF-κB/AP-1 but not IRF3 signaling pathways, and modulating oxidative stress through Nrf2 activation. The results suggest that limonene holds promise as a potential therapeutic agent for mitigating intestinal inflammation and preserving gastrointestinal health.


This article was originally published in Biomolecules, volume 14, in 2024.


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



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