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Chronic hypoxia may have a huge impact on the cardiovascular and renal systems. Advancements in microscopy, metabolomics, and bioinformatics provide opportunities to identify new biomarkers. In this study, we aimed at elucidating the metabolic alterations in kidney tissues induced by chronic hypoxia using untargeted metabolomic analyses. Reverse phase ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy/mass spectroscopy (RP–UPLC–MS/MS) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)–UPLC–MS/MS methods with positive and negative ion mode electrospray ionization were used for metabolic profiling. The metabolomic profiling revealed an increase in metabolites related to carnitine synthesis and purine metabolism. Additionally, there was a notable increase in bilirubin. Heme, N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid, thyroxine, and 3-beta-Hydroxy-5-cholestenoate were found to be significantly downregulated. 3-beta-Hydroxy-5-cholestenoate was downregulated more significantly in male than female kidneys. Trichome Staining also showed remarkable kidney fibrosis in mice subjected to chronic hypoxia. Our study offers potential intracellular metabolite signatures for hypoxic kidneys.


This article was originally published in Scientific Reports, volume 13, in 2023.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



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