Thyroglobulin Gene Mutations in Congenital Hypothyroidism

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Human thyroglobulin (TG) gene is a single copy gene, 270 kb long, that maps on chromosome 8q24.2–8q24.3 and contains an 8.5-kb coding sequence divided into 48 exons. TG is exclusively synthesized in the thyroid gland and represents a highly specialized homodimeric glycoprotein for thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Mutations in the TG gene lead to permanent congenital hypothyroidism. The presence of low TG level and also normal perchlorate discharge test in a goitrous individual suggest a TG gene defect. Until now, 52 mutations have been identified and characterized in the human TG gene with functional impact such as structural changes in the protein that alter the normal protein folding, assembly and biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. 11 of the mutations affect splicing sites, 11 produce premature stop codons, 23 lead to amino acid changes, 6 deletions (5 single and 1 involving a large number of nucleotides) and 1 single nucleotide insertion. TG mutations are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and affected individuals are either homozygous or compound heterozygous. The p.R277X, p.C1058R, p.C1977S, p.R1511X, p.A2215D and p.R2223H mutations are the most frequently identified TG mutations. This mini-review focuses on genetic and clinical aspects of TG gene defects.


This article was originally published in Hormone Research in Paediatrics, volume 75, issue 5, in 2011.


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