The Development of Novel Apurinic/Aprymidinic Endonuclease/Redox-factor 1 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Human Melanoma
Date of Award
Master of Science (MS)
Apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA repair endonuclease-1 (APE1), first recognized as an important DNA excision repair enzyme, is also known as Redox Factor-1 (Ref-1) involved in the activation of many nuclear transcription factors in both redox-dependent and independent manner. It has been well-documented that the overexpression of APE/Ref-1 contributes to the development of chemo-resistance and is associated with tumor progression in many human malignancies .
Our previous study in melanoma demonstrated that the development of novel inhibitors targeting the redox regulation domain of APE/Ref-1 is a promising strategy for melanoma treatment. To date, limited successes have been reported in developing novel APE/Ref-1 inhibitors for cancer treatment. Utilizing a structure-based approach, our study identified and characterized small molecular inhibitors of APE/Ref-1. First, N-terminally truncated APE/Ref-1 protein lacking the first 40 amino acid residues (∆40APE-1wt) was cloned into the pGEX-6P1 vector to express the GST-∆40APE-1wtprotein. After cleavage of GST-tag, the concentrated ∆40APE-1wt protein was subjected to protein crystallization study. We have successfully diffracted ∆40APE-1wt crystals and collected data with a resolution of 1.57Å. The crystal structure was further determined by molecular replacement in Molrep using the already available human APE-1 structure (PDB: 5CFG). For the first time, we observed the dimerization of APE/Ref-1 protein formed under oxidative conditions, which may contribute to the redox regulation of APE/Ref-1. Such structural transformation of APE/Ref-1 protein under distinct redox conditions may pave the way for future drug development and optimization. The binding affinity of the candidate compounds with ∆40APE-1wt protein was also determined using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), and the Ki values were analyzed. One of the potent inhibitors developed by our group by structure-based approach, exhibited promising anti-melanoma activities both in vitro and in vivo. Future studies on the structure-activity association are warranted.
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Sharifi B. The Development of Novel Apurinic/Aprymidinic Endonuclease/Redox-factor 1 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Human Melanoma. [master's thesis]. Irvine, CA: Chapman University; 2019. https://doi.org/10.36837/chapman.000103
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