Date of Award

Spring 5-28-2019

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Food Science

First Advisor

Rosalee Hellberg, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Lilian Were, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Denise Foley, Ph.D.


While the presence of ≥1% of an undeclared species in ground meat generally used as an indicator of intentional mislabeling as opposed to cross-contamination, the actual percent of undeclared species resulting from cross-contamination has not been experimentally determined. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of sanitation procedures on the crosscontamination of animal species in ground meat products, using undeclared pork in ground beef. Pork (13.6 kg) was processed using a commercial grinder, then one of three sanitation treatments was completed (“no cleaning”, “partial cleaning”, or “complete cleaning”). Next, beef (13.6 kg) was ground using the same equipment. For “no cleaning,” beef was ground immediately after pork without any cleaning step; for “partial cleaning,” the hopper tray was wiped, and excess meat was taken out from the auger; for “complete cleaning,” all parts of the grinder were disassembled and thoroughly cleaned with water and soap. A 100-g sample was collected for each 0.91 kg (2 lb) of beef processed with the grinder and each sanitation treatment was tested twice. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to quantify pork in ground beef. For “no cleaning,” the first 100-g sample of ground beef run through the grinder contained 24.42 ± 10.41% pork, while subsequent samples contained

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.



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