"In Female Masculinities, Judith Halberstam objects that critical and theoretical approaches to sex/gender systems have paid too much attention to anatomy. In particular, she faults studies of masculinity for focusing almost exclusively on the white male body and its effects. By delimiting masculinity in this way, Halberstam argues, we counterproductively confine ourselves to those manifestations of masculinity with which we are already intimately familiar. Urging an ampler vision, Halberstam calls for the examination of alternative masculinities, particularly those performed by agents who are not male by birth or biology.
When we read Milton with Halberstam in mind, we realize something simple but significant: Adam is the epic's only male."
Lehnhof, Kent. "Performing Masculinity in Paradise Lost," Milton Studies 50 (2009): 64-77.
Dusquesne University Press