Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



Handwriting remains an elusive skill with practice worksheets being the common method of learning. Since these worksheets provide only visual feedback and no quantitative feedback, it can often be a challenge to improve. For children with learning disabilities, learning handwriting skills is one of the most difficult tasks. We propose a handwriting training system that uses off-the-shelf webcam, a pen tracking software and a haptic sleeve which provides active feedback to the user based on their deviation from the original pattern. The sleeve has 4 individual motors that vibrate at different intensities based on the direction (right, left, up or down) and severity of the deviation (< 1cm, 1cm – 3cm, > 3cm). Different motor placements around the forearm are evaluated for vibro-tactile feedback accuracy and time response, and a novel spaced-ring configuration is proposed. This paper provides details on the system architecture and sleeve characterization, and the results show promise in utilizing the system for self-correction and visual-motor skills development. The results from sleeve characterization suggest the applicability of the spaced-ring configuration (perceived feedback accuracy > 98%, time response < 1s) in other vibrotactile hand guidance systems, in addition to handwriting correction. Recommendations on tactor placements around the forearm are provided.


This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in the 2021 18th International Conference on Ubiquitous Robots (UR). The definitive publisher-authenticated version is available online at


© 2021 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.