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Conference Proceeding

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Handwriting remains an elusive skill with practice worksheets being the common method of learning. Since these worksheets provide only visual feedback and no quantitative feedback, it can often be a challenge to improve. For children with learning disabilities, learning handwriting skills is one of the most difficult tasks. We propose a handwriting training system that uses off-the-shelf webcam, a pen tracking software and a haptic sleeve which provides active feedback to the user based on their deviation from the original pattern. The sleeve has 4 individual motors that vibrate at different intensities based on the direction (right, left, up or down) and severity of the deviation (< 1cm, 1cm – 3cm, > 3cm). Different motor placements around the forearm are evaluated for vibro-tactile feedback accuracy and time response, and a novel spaced-ring configuration is proposed. This paper provides details on the system architecture and sleeve characterization, and the results show promise in utilizing the system for self-correction and visual-motor skills development. The results from sleeve characterization suggest the applicability of the spaced-ring configuration (perceived feedback accuracy > 98%, time response < 1s) in other vibrotactile hand guidance systems, in addition to handwriting correction. Recommendations on tactor placements around the forearm are provided.


This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in the 2021 18th International Conference on Ubiquitous Robots (UR). The definitive publisher-authenticated version is available online at


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