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The conceptualization of curriculum as more than a document, specifically, as an active negotiation and construction of knowledge, was explored in two different studies as a first step toward understanding curriculum in practice. In particular, the studies explored the "social process curriculum" which was embedded in the enacted curriculum in the classrooms. Findings showed that the enacted curriculum was comprised of many elements, i.e., a pragmatic, unofficial, masked, social, and hidden curriculum. Each of these types of enacted curriculum were interwoven within the enacted curriculum, and were socializing agents which conveyed norms, behaviors, values and meanings to students.


This article was originally published in Education, volume 111, issue 1, in 1990.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



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